3D Printer Guide

We see more and more about innovative technologies.


Something topical, we meet very often, we hear more and more about it, are 3D Printers.

In this article we will present and analyze the parts of 3d printer:

  • What materials we use for the construction

  • Mechanical parts

  • Electronic parts (the electronic control circuit, the control board, the power supply DC voltage) consumables etc.

We will also show how we import a three-dimensional object (three-dimensional model has been designed on the computer) to the printer, what file format is compatible for printing process.

3D Printer is a CNC.

The most common 3D Printers consists of a head which moves in three axes (x, y, z) and deposit melted plastic in layers, so formed the three dimensional object.


The parts which consist a 3D Printer are:

- Plastic extrusion system (Extruder)

It consists of:

  • Head (Nozzle) which extrude the melted plastic.

  • The most common nozzle diameter which used in 3D Printers are:

  1. 0.2mm

  2. 0.3mm

  3. 0.4mm

  4. 0.5mm

  • Ceramic resistor which heats the head to melt the plastic.

  • Temperature sensor for controlling the temperature of the head.

  • Stepper motor for extrusion of material from the head.

  • Material (Filament) disposed in the head in the form of "spaghetti" 1.75mm diameter or 3mm usually available on a reel.


- Consumable material (Filament)

  • ABS Filament

  • PLA Filament

  • PETT Filament

  • NYLON Filament

  • FLEXIBLE Filament


- Bed - Heated bed (Heatbed)

  • The bed is the part where extruder deposit the filament.

Heatbed need for first layer sticks on bed and for best print results.


- Mechanical

To create three axes X, Y, Z can be used one of the following options or their combination:

- For the movement of moving parts can be used one of the following options or their combination.

Most printers include stepper motors for motion.


- Electronics

For motion control the central board (mainboard) is connected with:

  • Stepper motor control boards (stepper drivers).

  • Optional but usually selected, lcd display for control printing process and more informations.

  • Memory card slot for 3d object loading (latest lcd displays has built in memory card slot).

  • Limit switches (mechanical, optical) to end the movement of moving parts when they reach the maximum or minimum point movement.


- Importing three-dimensional object to the printer for printing.

  • The three-dimensional models for 3D Printers are STL files.

  • The final file is inserted into the 3D Printer for direct printing, converted from STL format into G code language (G CODE as it applies to all CNCs) with appropriate programs for 3D Printers.